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HIS 221 - African-American History: Black History and Medicine

This course covers African-American history from the Colonial period to the present. Topics include African origins, the slave trade, the Civil War, Reconstruction, the Jim Crow era, the civil rights movement, and contributions of African Americans.

Some Notable African-Americans in Medical History

Dr. Daniel Hale Williams

(1856-1Dr. Daniel Hale Williams931)

Dr. Williams was a pioneer in medicine and opened the first hospital in the United States with a racially integrated staff at Provident Hospital and Training School in 1891. In 1893, he performed one of the first open-heart surgeries at Provident. He later co-founded the National Medical Association as an organization for Black medical practitioners since the American Medical Association didn't allow Blacks to join.

Mary Eliza MahoneyMary Eliza Mahoney


In 1879, Mary Elizabeth Mahoney became the first black nurse to graduate in a nursing program in the United States. First a maid in the New England Hospital for Women and Children, Mahoney was admitted to the program in 1878. Later she ran the Howard Orphan Asylum for Black Children in Kings Park, Long Island, NY. Mahoney was also a prominent figure in the women's suffrage movement. 

James McCune SmithDr. James McCune Smith


Smith was the first African-American to graduate with a medical degree in 1837. He attended medical school at the University of Glasgow because Black people weren't allowed admission in medical schools in the United States. Born enslaved, Smith was freed by New York's Emancipation Act of 1827. 

DJames Francis Shoberr. Francis James Shober


Dr. Shober was the first black physician to practice in North Carolina. Born the son of a slave, Shober graduated from Howard University School of Medicine. He practiced in Wilmington, NC, and died at the age of 36. 

Book of Medical discoursesDr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler


Dr. Crumpler was first trained as a midwife because women weren't considered strong or intelligent enough for any other fields and some thought men shouldn't assist with childbirth. Dr. Crumpler went on to care for freed slaves in Richmond, Virginia, at the Freedman's Bureau. There are no known pictures of Dr. Crumpler.

Charles DrewDr. Charles Richard Drew


Born in Washington DC, Dr. Drew was educated at McGill University in Montreal and wanted to complete his residency in the United States but found few opportunities for African-Americans to complete residencies. He accepted a position at Howard and then became the first African-American to receive a M.D. from Columbia. Drew worked to create a better way to preserve plasma and became the first director of the American Red Cross Blood Bank. He resigned, however, because the military refused to accept blood if it wasn't separated by the race of the donor. Drew returned to Howard to work in surgery. Drew died in a car accident in rural Alamance County, North Carolina. 

Rowan-Cabarrus' Nursing School Short History from 1995 Self Study

"The Associate Degree Nursing program at Rowan-Cabarrus Community College first admitted students in September 1971. Twenty-seven (27) students became the first graduating class in May 1973. A total of 601 students have graduated from the program over the past 21 years [published in 1995]. The Associate Degree Nursing program has maintained full accreditation status by the North Carolina Board of Nursing since 1971, and received its initial five-year accreditation by the National League for Nursing on April 5, 1990." Self-Study 1995, pages 1-2

"The program of learning has evolved since the program's inception in 1971. The most dramatic change occurred when the program was revised from a seven-quarter program to a six-quarter program in 1992. The combining of the pediatric and obstetrical content into one quarter allowed the program to become a six-quarter program. Changes have involved reorganization and combining of content which has provided for more emphasis on the primary focus of the associate degree nurse, nursing of adults." Self-Study 1995, page 19


Here is a picture from the 1973 yearbook of the Practical Nurse Education students.  picture from 1973 yearbook RCCC

Black Hospitals

Freedmen's Hospital (Washington, DC)

Freedmen's Hospital was established 1862 in Washington, DC by the Medical Division of the Freedmen's Bureau to provide the much needed medical care to slaves, especially those freed following the aftermath of the Civil War. The hospital was located on the grounds belonging to Howard University and was the only Federally-funded health care facility for African Americans in the nation.

It still exists today as Howard University Hospital, one of only three remaining traditional Black hospitals. The Freedmen's Bureau existed for only four years, but during that time a movement was started that paved the way for some ninety new hospitals for Blacks and other health care facilities. Each state acquired some type of health care facility around 1865 through the turn of the century. By 1900, there were about forty Black hospitals.


Lincoln Hospital (Durham, NC)

Lincoln Hospital was founded by Dr. Aaron McDuffie Moore (1863-1923) in 1901 when he convinced Washington Duke that a hospital would be a more valuable investment than Duke's idea of building a monument on the Trinity campus to honor African Americans who had fought for the confederacy.

Dr. Moore, who received his medical degree from Leonard Medical College (Shaw University), was Durham's only Black doctor during this time.



Provident Hospital (Chicago, IL)

Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses, the first Black-owned and operated hospital in America, was founded in 1891 by Dr. Daniel Hale Williams. Provident provided training for nurses and interns in Chicago. Black patients were denied admission to white hospitals; therefore, Black physicians could not treat their patients.


Saint Agnes Hospital (Raleigh, NC)

Saint Agnes Hospital established (1886) in Raleigh, North Carolina on the grounds of St. Augustine's College. Despite obvious handicaps, it was referred to in 1922 as the "only well equipped hospital for Negroes between Washington and New Orleans, serving not only North Carolina, but adjacent Virginia and South Carolina." The hospital closed in April 1961 after nearly 65 years of service. Source: Journal of the National Medical Association, 53(5):439-446; Sept. 1961.

Health, Hospitals and the Negro from The Modern Hospital, Eugene H. Bradley, August, 1945

In 1944, there were 124 Black hospitals in the United States catering exclusively to "colored" patients. Of these 124 hospitals, 23 were fully approved by the American College of Surgeons and three were provisionally approved. These institutions were located in 23 states and the District of Columbia.

Bibliography/For Further Reading

Pictures from the Rowan-Cabarrus Archive. 

group of nurses nurses with skeleton Nurse taking pulse Nurse taking blood pressure

Many thanks to Beverly Murphy and the Duke University Medical Center Library and Archives for allowing us to use their digital materials. 

Duke University Medical Center Archives. (2021). Black History Month: A medical perspective.

Duke University Medical Center Archives. (n.d.). Duke's African American LPN Program

Terrell, E. (2020) Honoring African American contributions in medicine: Midwives. Library of Congress.

Terrell, E. (2020) Honoring African American contributions in medicine: Nurses. Library of Congress. 

Black Hospital Movement - 1865-1960s (Duke University Medical Center Library and Archives


  • A place for Black physicians to treat patients and improve skills through lectures, workshops, and training sessions
  • African Americans (doctors and patients) were excluded from most hospitals
  • To offset the inequities with respect to health care facilities and practices
  • The lack of hospitals for Blacks contributed to the poor health status of the colored community
  • Black physicians saw black hospitals as a larger part of a general movement to improve the social standing of colored society


  • Establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau and its medical division
  • Hospitals, dispensaries, and other health care facilities were established in the larger cities, especially in the south
  • Self-help and philanthropic support
  • The move from exclusion to segregation in hospital care
  • The establishment of separate (but not equal) asylums, poorhouses, homes for children, institutions for the deaf and dumb, and adjuncts to city and county hospitals and infirmaries
  • The emergence of the Black hospital

History of Medical Schools and Black Americans


Medical schools were closed to Blacks in the South and to a lesser degree in the North. Because of the color line in medicine, the first African-American physicians received their medical degrees abroad.  A few older medical schools in the East admitted some blacks; namely, Harvard, Yale, and Pennsylvania.  In the Midwest, Indiana, Northwestern, and Michigan accepted some African-American medical students. The first medical degree was awarded in 1847 to David J. Peck at the Rush Medical School in Chicago. Only four more degrees were awarded until 1860 when nine Northern medical schools started admitting Black students.


Seven medical schools for blacks were established between 1868 and 1904. In 1895, there were 385 African-American doctors, only 7 percent from white medical schools. In 1905, there were 1,465 African-American doctors, only 14.5 percent from white medical schools. Almost 2,400 physicians were graduated from Howard and Meharry medical schools from 1890 to the end of WWI.

Medical Schools For Blacks Established 1868 to 1904

  • Howard University Medical School, est. 1868 Washington, DC
  • Meharry Medical College, est. 1876 Nashville, TN
  • Leonard Medical School (Shaw University), 1882-1914 Raleigh, NC
  • New Orleans University Medical College, 1887-1911 New Orleans, LA (Renamed Flint Medical College)
  • Knoxville College Medical Department, 1895-1900 Knoxville, TN (Became Knoxville Medical College in 1900 and closed in 1910) 
  • Chattanooga National Medical College, 1902-1908 Chattanooga, TN
  • University of West Tennessee College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1904-1923 Memphis, TN

By 1923, only Howard University Medical School and Meharry Medical School remained.

Chronology in African-American Medicine - Duke University Medical Center and Archives


Onesimus, an enslaved African, describes to Cotton Mather the African method of inoculation against smallpox. The technique, later used to protect American Revolutionary War soldiers, is perfected in the 1790's by British doctor Edward Jenner's use of a less virulent organism.


Dr. James Durham, born into slavery in 1762, buys his freedom and begins his own medical practice in New Orleans, becoming the first African-American doctor in the United States. As a youngster, he was owned by a number of doctors, who taught him how to read and write, mix medicines, and serve and work with patients. Durham had a flourishing medical practice in New Orleans until 1801 when the city restricted his practice because he did not have a formal medical degree.


Dr. James Durham is invited to Philadelphia to meet Dr. Benjamin Rush, who wanted to investigate Durham's reported success in treating patients with diphtheria. Dr. Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and one of America's foremost physicians, was so impressed that he personally read Durham's paper on diphtheria before the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Durham returned to New Orleans in 1789, where he saved more yellow fever victims than any other physician (During an epidemic that killed thousands, he lost 11 of 64 patients).


Dr. James McCune Smith graduates from the University of Glasgow, becoming the first African American to earn a medical degree.


Dr. David Jones Peck becomes the first African-Amercan medical student to graduate from a medical school in the United States (Rush Medical College, Chicago, IL).


Augusta, GA: The Jackson Street Hospital is established as the first institution of record solely for the care of colored patients. The founders were a group of charitable minded whites led by Dr. Henry Fraser Campbell, University of Georgia School of Medicine. There was no colored staff in this three story structure, which housed fifty beds, operating quarters, and a lecture hall.


Freedmen's Hospital is established in Washington, D.C., and is the only federally-funded health care facility for Blacks in the nation.

Born a slave in Georgia in 1848, Susie Baker (who later became known as Susie King Taylor) is the first African-American U.S. Army nurse during the Civil War. King served in a newly formed regiment of Black soldiers organized at Port Royal Island off the South Carolina coast by Major General David Hunter, commander of the Union's Department of the South. After the war, she helped to organize a branch of the Women's Relief Corps


Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler, the first African-American female to earn a medical degree, graduates from New England Female Medical College, Boston.


Robert Tanner Freeman is one of the first six graduates in dental medicine from Harvard University, thus becoming the first African American to receive an education in dentistry and a dental degree from an American medical school. (Freeman was born in 1847 to slave parents in North Carolina.)


Washington, DC: Howard University School of Medicine, established for the purpose of educating African-American doctors, opens to both black and white students, including women.


Dr. James Francis Shober earns his M.D. from Howard University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C. and later becomes the first known African-American physician with a medical degree to practice in North Carolina.


Mary Eliza Mahoney becomes the first African-American professional nurse, graduating from the New England Hospital for Women and Children (Now Dimock Community Health Center), Boston.


Atlanta, GA: The first school of record for Black student nurses is established at Spelman College.


Chicago, IL: Dr. Daniel Hale Williams establishes the Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses, the first Black-owned and first interracial hospital in the United States. Dr. Austin Maurice Curtis, Sr(a Raleigh, North Carolina native) becomes the hospital's first intern.


Chicago, IL: At Provident Hospital, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams performs the first successful operation on a human heart. (The patient, a victim of a chest stab wound, survived and lived a normal life for twenty years after the operation.)


Atlanta, GA: The National Medical Association is founded, since African Americans are barred from other established medical groups. 

Philadelphia, PA: Dr. Nathan Francis Mossell founds the Frederick Douglass Memorial Hospital and Training School for Nurses.


Saint Agnes Hospital established in Raleigh, North Carolina on the grounds of St. Augustine's College. Despite obvious handicaps, it was referred to in 1922 as the "only well equipped hospital for Negroes between Washington and New Orleans, serving not only North Carolina, but adjacent Virginia and South Carolina." The hospital closed in April 1961 after nearly 65 years of service. Source: Journal of the National Medical Association, 53(5):439-446; Sept. 1961.

Nashville, TN: Dr. John Henry Jordan, a son of slaves, graduates from Meharry Medical College, defying his father and the ways of the Deep South. He was the first Black doctor in Coweta County, Georgia, and built the first Black hospital in the county.


Washington, DC: The Washington Society of Colored Dentists, the first organization of Black dentists, is founded.


Durham, NC: Dr. Aaron McDuffie Moore convinces Washington Duke to donate money for the construction of Lincoln Hospital.


Alois Alzheimer selects five foreign visiting students at the Royal Psychiatric Hospital, University of Munich, as his graduate research assistants, including African American Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller. After leaving Germany in 1906, Fuller continued his research on degenerative disorders of the brain and was a widely published pioneer in Alzheimer's disease research. At the time of his death in 1953, the only acknowledgment of his Fuller's work was an Honorary Doctor of Science Degree awarded in 1943 by his alma mater, Livingstone College, Salisbury, NC.


The National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN) is established. (NACGN was dissolved in 1951, when its members voted to merge with the American Nurses Association.)


Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller, recognized by the American Psychiatric Association as the country's first Black psychiatrist, publishes the first comprehensive clinical review of all Alzheimer's cases that have been reported up to this time. He was the first to translate into English much of Alois Alzheimer's work on the disease that bears his name.


The NAACP awards Dr. Ernest E. Just the first Springarn Medal for his pioneering research on fertilization and cell division.


Camp Upton, NY: Dr. Louis T. Wright, a pioneer in clinical antibiotic research, develops a better technique (intradermal injection) for vaccinating soldiers against smallpox.


Dr. Meta L. Christy, a graduate of the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, is the world's first African-American osteopathic physician.


Boston, MA: Dr. William Augustus Hinton develops the Hinton Test for diagnosing syphilis. (He later develops an improved version, the Hinton-Davies Test, in 1931.)


Dr. William Augustus Hinton's book, Syphilis and Its Treatment, is the first medical textbook written by an African American to be published.


Sara Delaney's article entitled "Bibliotherapy in a Hospital" is published in the February issue of Opportunity magazine. (Delaney, chief librarian at the U.S. Veteran's Administration Hospital in Tuskegee, Alabama, was a pioneer in the use of selected reading to aid in the treatment of patients.)


Dr. Charles R. Drew presents his thesis, "Banked Blood," at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. The thesis covers two years of blood research, including the discovery that plasma could replace whole blood transfusions.


Vivien Theodore Thomas, laboratory researcher and surgical technician, makes history with Dr. Alfred Blalock as co-developer of the "Blalock" clamp, the first clamp for temporary occlusion of the pulmonary artery which is used in the first successful surgical treatment for "Blue-Baby" Syndrome in 1944. Although Thomas, who had previously been a carpenter and janitor, never completed his original plans for medical school, he was supervisor of Johns Hopkins surgical laboratories for 35 years and later appointed instructor in surgery at Johns Hopkins University Medical School. The 2004 HBO television movie "Something the Lord Made" was based on his role in the historic Blue Baby surgery, as was the 2003 public television documentary, Partners of the Heart.Partial  Partial Source: African-American Contributions to Medicine -- part 6 of 7


group of African-American medics land on Utah Beach/Normandy on D-Day + 4, as part of a nine-person, all Black team of medics, which included two officers. Serving with the 687th and the 530th Medical Detachments, they spent most of the rest of the European campaign attached to the 3rd Army while participating in many of its major actions.

Leonidas Harris Berry becomes the first black physician on staff at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, IL, but he continued to fight for an attending position, which he finally received in 1963. He also chaired a Chicago commission in the 1950s that worked to make hospitals more inclusive for black physicians and increase facilities in underserved parts of the city. Berry helped to organize the "Flying Black Medics" in 1970, a group of practitioners who flew to Cairo from Chicago to bring medical care and health education to those remote communities


Dr. Helen O. Dickens becomes the first African-American woman admitted to the American College of Surgeons.


African American Henrietta Lacks was diagnosed with terminal cervical cancer and treated at Johns Hopkins University, where a doctor took cells from her cervix without her knowledge. These cells were found to be unique in that they could be kept alive and would also grow indefinitely. Since that time, Lacks' cells, now known as HeLa cells (in Lacks' honor), have been cultured and used in experiments ranging from determining the long-term effects of radiation to testing the live polio vaccine. Read more


Dr. Peter Murray Marshall is installed as the President of the New York County Medical Society, becoming the first African American to lead a unit of the American Medical Association.


Dr. Geraldine Pittman Woods becomes the first African-American woman appointed to the National Advisory General Medical Services Council. In this position, she addressed the need to improve science education and research opportunities at minority institutions.


Dr. Jane C. Wright, pioneer in chemotherapy research and daughter of Dr. Louis T. Wright (see "1917"), is appointed an Associate Dean and Professor of Surgery at New York Medical College. At the time, this was the highest post ever attained by an African-American woman in medical administration.


Prentiss Harrison is the first African American to be formally educated as a Physician Assistant. Prentiss graduated from Duke's Physician Assistant (PA) Program which was established in 1965 as the first of its kind in the nation.


Alfred Day Hershey, PhD, geneticist, becomes the first African American to share a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He received the award for his research on the replication and genetic structure of viruses. 


Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, is the only Black medical school founded in the United States during the 20th century. It is among one of the nation's leading educators of primary care physicians and has been recognized as the top institution among U.S. medical schools for their social mission which emphasizes underserved urban and rural populations.

Dr. Louis Wade Sullivan, founding dean and president of Morehouse School of Medicine, is also noted as the serving as the Secretary of  the Dept. of Health & Human Services under the George H. W. Bush Administration, where he directed the creation of the Office of Minority Programs in the National Institutes of Health’s Office of the Director. 


Patricia Bath, a pioneer in the treatment and prevention of blindness and an advocate for eyesight as a basic human right, founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Source: African-American Trailblazers in Medicine & Medical Research


Dr. LaSalle D. Leffall becomes the first African-American President of the American Cancer Society.


Alexa Canady becomes the first African-American woman neurosurgeon in the U.S. She served as chief of neurosurgery at the Children’s Hospital of Michigan from 1987-2001. Source: African-American Trailblazers in Medicine & Medical Research


Baltimore, MD: Dr. Ben Carson, neurosurgeon, leads a seventy-member surgical team at Johns Hopkins Hospital in separating Siamese twins joined at the cranium.


Dr. Marilyn Hughes Gaston becomes the first female and first African American physician to direct the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Bureau of Primary Health Care. She was also the second black woman to serve as assistant surgeon general, achieving the rank of rear admiral in the U.S. Public Health Service. Her 1986 study of sickle-cell disease led to a nationwide screening program to test newborns for immediate treatment.


Dr. Vivian Pinn is the first female and first African-American woman Director of the Office of Research on Women's Health, National Institutes of Health, which oversees research on women and insures that they are represented in broad clinical trials.


Dr. Edward S. Cooper is the first African American elected as National President of the American Heart Association.
Dr. Joycelyn Elders is the first African American to be appointed as U.S. Surgeon General.
Dr. Barbara Ross-Lee is the first African-American woman to be appointed Dean of a U.S. medical school (Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine)


Dr. Helene Doris Gayle is the first female and first African-American Director of the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control.

Dr. Lonnie Bristow becomes the first African American President of the American Medical Association (AMA) in its 148 year history. His work as president focused on many of the issues he addressed throughout his career including sickle cell anemia, coronary care, and socio-economic issues impacting health care.


Dr. Ernest E. Just is recognized for his contributions to the biological sciences with a U.S. Postal Service stamp.


Dr. Donna Christian-Christensen is the first woman physician and first African-American woman physician in the U.S. Congress.


Dr. David Satcher is sworn in as both the Assistant Secretary for Health and U.S. Surgeon General.


Dr. Sharon Henry is the first African-American woman to be elected into membership as a fellow in the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. 


Dr. Roselyn Payne Epps is the first African-American woman to serve as President of the American Medical Women's Association.


Emmette Chappelle, a renowned NASA biochemist and inventor and holder of 14 U.S. patents, is inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his work in bioluminescence.  A World War II veteran whose research enabled the more accurate detection of bacteria in water, Chappelle worked  in support of NASA’s manned spaceflight missions. Source: African-American Trailblazers in Medicine & Medical Research


The National Library of Medicine, in collaboration with the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University, releases The Charles R. Drew Papers on the Library's Profiles in Science Website.

William G. Coleman, Jr., PhDis appointed as NIH's National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities first permanent Scientific Director and the first African-American Scientific Director in the history of the NIH Intramural Research Program. Dr. Coleman, a microbiologist, has had a long career as a scientist in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Intramural Research Program.


Dr. Patrice Harris becomes the first black woman President-Elect of the country's largest physician organization, the American Medical Association (AMA). First elected to AMA's board of trustees in 2011, Harris most recently was the group's point person on the opioid epidemic.

Beverly Murphya Distinguished Member of the Academy of Health Information Professionals and a Medical Library Association (MLA) Fellow, begins her term as the first African-American President of the Medical Library Association, established in 1898 as a global, nonprofit educational organization of institutions and professionals in the health information field.


Dr. Ernest Grant begins his term as the first male and the first African-American man serving as President of the American Nurses Association. He was also elected as the first African-American male President of the North Carolina Nurses Association in 2010. An internationally recognized burn care expert, Dr. Grant has worked at the University of North Carolina's Jaycee Burn Center since 1982.


Kizzmekia Corbett, PhD, is one of the National Institutes of Health's leading scientists working directly to develop and produce the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. A native of North Carolina, Corbett's work helps to highlight the significance of supporting black students in entering STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields.

Yale Professor Dr. Marcella Nunez-Smith, a leader in the field of health equity, is chosen to be a co-chair for the Coronavirus Task Force Advisory Board during the administrative Transition for President-Elect Joe Biden and Vice President-Elect Kamala Harris. The charge of this task force will be to craft a plan to curb the spread of Covid-19 including the disproportionate impact of the pandemic on people of color. Nunez-Smith previously advised on the pandemic strategy for Connecticut, serving on the Reopen Connecticut Advisory Board under Governor Ned Lamont.

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