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Astronomy: Web Resources

A guide to resources on astronomy. Choose from the tabs below to locate specific kinds of resources.

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Use the CRAP Test

It is challenging to determine whether information from the Web is credible and can be trusted. Is it factual? Biased? Relevant to your topic?

Here is a handy acronym to help you determine if a source may be CRAP.



  • CURRENCY How recently was this information published/posted? Can you find a publication date?
  • RELIABILITYIs the information supported by evidence? Can it be confirmed by other sources?
  • AUTHORITYWho wrote the information - are they an expert or knowledgeable in their field? (i.e. For health information, did a doctor or nurse write it?)
  • PURPOSE / POINT OF VIEWWhy was it written? To sell something? To sway opinion? Is it biased toward a particular point of view?


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Media Bias Chart

Objectivity is assessing to what degree does an author's bias affect how and what information is presented. A lack of objectivity can be problematic as the author may misrepresent/misinterpret information. An author's bias may also show itself in an omission of information of relevant or important information. Bias does not necessarily invalidate an author's work, but it should alert you that a counterargument source may need to be acquired to balance your research. Below are some questions to ask when determining the level of a source's objectivity or bias.

  • Does the information appear to be fact, opinion, or propaganda?
  • Is the author sufficiently objective and un-biased for your research needs?
  • If not, what are the biases or agenda of the author and could that source be utilized as a counterargument to another source? 

Below is a graph which attempts to chart the type and degree of bias found in many major news outlets. 

Media Bias Chart