Verbal citations should come at the beginning of the cited idea or quotation
Why Use Verbal Citations?
What should an oral citation include?
Mention the author’s name, along with credentials to establish that author as a credible source
In the March 27th, 2011 issue of the New York Times, Pulitzer Prize winning author and foreign affairs columnist Thomas Friedman wrote…
Say the title of the magazine, journal or web site
identify the type of publication and
provide a comment regarding credibility if the publication is not widely recognized
In the November 10th, 2006 issue of Practice Nurse, the leading peer-reviewed journal for primary care nurses, author Sue Lyon describes shingles as…
Titles of articles do not necessarily have to be mentioned unless you are using several articles from the same source.
Say the date that a journal, magazine or newspaper was published
Interviews: give the date when the person was interviewed
Websites: that don't clearly show a date on the document, say the date that the web page was last updated and/or the date you accessed the website.
The web page titled “The History of Figs,” dated 2011, provided by the California Fig Advisory Board, reveals varied uses of the fig: as a digestive aid, a treatment for skin pigmentation diseases, and a coffee substitute.
Signal phrases introduce the material, often including the author's name. Remember that the signal verb must be appropriate to the idea you are expressing.
acknowledges * concludes * emphasizes * replies * advises * concurs * expresses * reports * agrees * confirms * interprets * responds * allows * criticizes * lists * reveals * answers * declares * objects * says * asserts * describes * observes * states * believes * disagrees * offers * suggests * charges * discusses * opposes * thinks * claims * disputes * remarks * writes
Signal, Cite and Comment
When you use a quote in your speech:
In an article in the November, 2004 issue of the South African Journal of Psychology, Dr. Derek Hook, a professor of social psychology at the London School of Economics, says, and I quote, “Racism comprises a set of representations of the other in terms of negatively evaluative contents.”
According to the “Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet,” last updated March 9th, 2011 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, symptoms of Tourette syndrome include uncontrolled blinking, grimacing and shoulder shrugging.