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Communications: Plagiarism/Integrating Sources for Speeches

This course provides an overview of the basic concepts of communication and the skills necessary to communicate in various contexts. Emphasis is placed on communication theories and techniques used in interpersonal group, public, intercultural, and mass c

Integrating Sources for Speeches

Verbal citations should come at the beginning of the cited idea or quotation

 

Why Use Verbal Citations?

  • Adds credibility
  • Shows you've done your homework
  • Avoids plagiarism by giving credit to others for their work/ideas
  • Shows timeliness of research and resources

                          What should an oral citation include?

AUTHOR

Mention the author’s name, along with credentials to establish that author as a credible source

Example:

In the March 27th, 2011 issue of the New York Times, Pulitzer Prize winning author and foreign affairs columnist Thomas Friedman wrote…

TITLE

  • Say the title of the magazine, journal or web site

  • identify the type of publication and

  • provide a comment regarding credibility if the publication is not widely recognized

Example:

In the November 10th, 2006 issue of Practice Nurse, the leading peer-reviewed journal for primary care nurses, author Sue Lyon describes shingles as…

Titles of articles do not necessarily have to be mentioned unless you are using several articles from the same source.

DATE

Say the date that a journal, magazine or newspaper was published 

 

Interviews:  give the date when the person was interviewed

Websites: that don't clearly show a date on the document, say the date that the web page was last updated and/or the date you accessed the website.

Example:

The web page titled “The History of Figs,” dated 2011, provided by the California Fig Advisory Board, reveals varied uses of the fig: as a digestive aid, a treatment for skin pigmentation diseases, and a coffee substitute.

 

Include who/what and when.
  • Author 
  • Author's credentials
  • Title of Work
  • Title of Publication
  • Date of work/publication/study

 

Plagiarism -Failure to provide an oral citation even if you cite your sources in a written outline, bibliography, works cited page or list of references

 

 In a speech-you must provide an oral citation for any words, information or ideas that are not your own 

Signal Verbs to Help you Introduce the Quote

Signal phrases introduce the material, often including the author's name. Remember that the signal verb must be appropriate to the idea you are expressing.

acknowledges * concludes * emphasizes * replies * advises * concurs * expresses * reports * agrees * confirms * interprets * responds * allows * criticizes * lists * reveals * answers * declares * objects * says * asserts * describes * observes * states * believes * disagrees * offers * suggests * charges * discusses * opposes * thinks * claims * disputes * remarks * writes

Signal, Cite and Comment

  • Signaling -allows the reader to know that you are incorporating another writer's ideas
  • Citation -gives information about where the information came from
  • Comments- will show your reader how this information supports your ideas

QUOTING

 When you use a quote in your speech:

  • You must identify the source 
  • You also must let the audience know that you are quoting

Example:

In an article in the November, 2004 issue of the South African Journal of Psychology, Dr. Derek Hook, a professor of social psychology at the London School of Economics, says, and I quote, “Racism comprises a set of representations of the other in terms of negatively evaluative contents.”

PARAPHRASING

  • when you refer to someone else’s idea, but you say that idea in your own words
  • before you talk about the idea, you must refer to the source
  • always cite it

Example:

According to the “Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet,” last updated March 9th, 2011 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, symptoms of Tourette syndrome include uncontrolled blinking, grimacing and shoulder shrugging.

Summarizing:

  •  condense the author's words or ideas without altering the meaning
  •  providing interpretation using your own words  
  •  presenting the original information in a nutshell.
  • always cite it.

Plagiarism/Integrating Sources - More Information