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Virtual Library Instruction: Major Changes for APA7

Guides to teach Virtual Instruction

APA7 - What's changed?

New APA7 Highlights

From the American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Then                                                                                                    Now

Header included

Running Head: TITLE                                                                                page#

Header includes only the page number, aligned to the right

Title page included


Author's Name

College Name

Title page includes



Author's Name

Department, College Name

Class abbrev and number: Class name


Date Submitted

References included the words "Retrieved from" before the URL

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on

immunizations. Retrieved from

"Retrieved from" has been removed from references.

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on


In references, DOIs weren't preferred and weren't formatted as links.

DOIs are preferred and formatted as URLs.

Publisher location was included on references.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and  worst. New

York: Penguin Books.

Publisher location is removed from reference

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst.

Penguin Books.

Surnames and initials were used for up to 7 authors in reference list. Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors in reference list.

First in-text citation included up to 5 authors.

(Taylor, Smith, Barbee, Johnson, & Mason, 2018)

In-text citation for source with three or more authors is et al from first citation on

(Taylor et al., 2018)

Non-binary "they" wasn't endorsed. Writers used "he or she".

A researcher's career depends on how often he or she is cited.

Singular non-binary "they" and "their's" is endorsed.

A researcher's career depends on how often they are cited.

Articles from news websites were formatted like other webpages.

Domonoske, C. (2016, November 23). Students have 'dismaying' inability to tell fake

news from real. Retrieved from


More guidance for formatting webpages on news websites references.

Domonoske, C. (2016, November 23). Students have 'dismaying' inability to

tell fake news from real. NPR.


Few guidelines for social media

More guidance for formatting social media references, including Tweets, Facebook, comments on posts

APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are

forming mental-health clubs - and they're making a difference

@washingtonpost [Tweet]. Twitter.


*APA7 allows for fonts other than Times New Roman 12 but Rowan-Cabarrus' English and ACA Department has chosen to continue to accept only Times New Roman 12. Other departments at Rowan-Cabarrus may choose to use other fonts including 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode. Other options are 11-point Georgia or 10-point Computer Modern. (APA Publication Manual, 2019, p. 44).

** APA7 encourages hyperlinks that are underlined, in blue, or both, especially for materials that are meant to be read online (p. 299-300).

APA7 Citation Guides and Templates

Rowan-Cabarrus uses the newest version of APA (APA7) which was released in October 2019. Make sure that you are using formatting and citation style for the 7th Edition of APA.

A few things about APA formatting

  • APA7 allows for fonts other than Times New Roman 12 BUT our English and ACA departments have chosen to only allow Times New Roman 12. Other allowed fonts (for classes outside of English/ACA) are 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode. 11-point Georgia or 10-point Computer Modern are also allowed (APA Publication Manual, 2019, p. 44)
  • Double-space always
  • Rowan-Cabarrus generally doesn't use headings other than Level 1 (centered and bold) and Level 2 (left aligned and bold)
  • Abstracts are only necessary when the instructor asks for them.
  • There are two versions of APA on the web. Be careful
  • Within APA7, there are two versions (professional and student). Be careful.
  • Heading is page number, right aligned.

APA for Students

Check these out

Citing Different Sources in APA7

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

(Klymbkowsky, 2018) is the in-text citation

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. Penguin. 

(Gleick, 1987) is the in-text citation

Gale, P., & Lerner, N. (2000). The Bacon guide to peer tutoring. Allyn & Bacon. 

(Gale & Lerner, 2000) is the in-text citation

UNCG. (2021). Information for potential UNCG students [Brochure]

In-text is (UNCG, 2021)

If an online brochure

UNCG. (n.d.) Visitor brochure [Brochure].

Include title and [Brochure] in the title. This brochure has no date. Do not use the webpage's copyright date.

In-text is (UNCG, n.d.)

Harris, M. (2000). Talk to me: Engaging reluctant writers. In B. Raforth (Ed.), A tutor's guide: Helping writers (pp. 24-34). Heinemann. 

(Harris, 2000)  is the in-text citation


Dickinson, E. (1950). Because I could not stop for death. In F.O. Matthiessen (Ed.), The Oxford Book of American Verse (p. 439). Oxford.

In-text citation would be (Dickinson, 1950)

Johnson, L. (2020). Course syllabus English 112. Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. URL.

In-text Citation (Johnson, 2020)

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

Parenthetical: (Brown v. Board of Education, 1954)

Narrative: Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

From page 359 of APA Manual 7th Edition.

US Supreme Court case, with a page number (through 2012 Supreme Court term)

U.S. is short for United States Reports.

Published in Volume 347 on page 483 in the year 1954.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)- In-text Citation

Paulson, J. A. (2016). Neuropsychological functioning and inflammation in past and current PTSD (Order No. 3706233) [Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University]. ProQuest Central.

Intext citation will be 

(Paulson, 2016)

Cuellar, N. G. (2016). Study abroad programs [Editorial]. Journal of Transcultural Nursing27(3), 209.

(Cuellar, 2016) In-text Citation

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 action steps for helping someone in emotional pain [Infographic]. Facebook. Qstq

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2018) In-text Citation

Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from

(Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.) In-text Citation

Cambridge Educational. (2018). Animal trainer-career Q&A: Professional advice and insight. Ferguson's Career Guidance.

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

(Forman, 1975) In-text Citation

Goya, F. (1800). The family of Charles IV. Museo National del Prado. /hd_goya

Office of Women's Health. (2019, March 14). Breastfeeding. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

 In-text Citation is (Office of Women's Health, 2019). 

*If author and publisher are the same, you do not need to repeat name after the title of webpage. This reference/citation shows Office of Women's Health as the group author and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the publisher. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications.

Intext is (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018)

If you want to abbreviate you must connect the entire name of organization with the abbreviation on the first intext and then abbreviate after that.

First instance is: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDD], 2018). Next intext would be (CDC, 2018)

First instance is: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018). Next instance, (CDC, 2018).


Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram.


(Zeitz MOCAA, 2018) In-text Citation

The New York Public Library [@nypl]. 9n.d.) The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from

(The New York Public Library, n.d.) In-text Citation

Interviews or other personal communication (emails, letters, phone calls or messages that aren't able to be recovered or found) are NOT included in the reference list.

These personal communications are in-text cited as 

(E. Robbins, personal communication, September 29, 2020)

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia. 

(Bowie, 2016) In-text Citation

Childish Gambino. (2018). This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA.

(Childish Gambino, 2018) In-text Citation

Magryta, C. (2015, August 30). Top ten reasons to breastfeed your infant. The Salisbury Post.

For citing a source at the end of the sentence - (Magryta, 2015)
For citing a source when you name the source in the sentence  - Magryta (2015) says in his article that breastfeeding is beneficial because.....

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. [Online forum post]. Reddit.

(National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018) In-text Citation

Nemko, M. (2020, February 6). The three principles of good parenting. Psychology Today


(Nemko, 2020) In-text Citation

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

(McCurry, 1985) In-text Citation

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

(Vendantam, 2015-present) In-text Citation

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago.

(Glass, 2011)  In-text Citation

Psychology Department, Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. (2021). Module 6 - adulthood [Lecture notes].

(Psychology Department, 2021). In-text Citation

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)

(King James Bible, 1769/2017)  In-text Citation

de Beauvoir, S., (1960, May 4). Simone de Beauvoir discusses the art of writing [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum.

(de Beauvoir, 1960) In-text Citation

Brewer, T. (2002). Test-taking anxiety among nursing & general college students. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 40(11), 22-29.


(Brewer, 2002)  In-text Citation


According to Brewer (2002), 

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1(, 1-51.

(McCauley & Christiansen, 2019) In-text Citation

Pauwels, S., Symons, L., Eva-Lynn Vanautgaerden, Ghosh, M., Duca, R. C., Bekaert, B., Freson, K., Huybrechts, I., Langie, S., Koppen, G., Devlieger, R., & Godderis, L. (2019). The influence of the duration of breastfeeding on the infant’s metabolic epigenome. Nutrients, 11(6), 1408.

(Pauwels et al., 2019) for in-text citation when authors' names are not mentioned in sentence (Parenthetical citation)

Pauwels et al. (2019) when author is mentioned in the text (Narrative citation)


APA7 requires that you list up to 20 authors in the reference list 

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

(King, 1963) In-text Citation

npatou. (2016, June 6). Malcolm X's legendary speech: "The bullet or the ballot" [Video]. YouTube.



(npatou, 2016) In-text Citation
Use the YouTube contributor as the author, not the speaker, per the APA Publication Manual, page 344.

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences.

In-text Citation Format:

  • Parenthetical citation: (Giertz, 2018)
  • Narrative citation: Giertz (2018)

Losco, J. & Baker, R. (2018). Am gov 2017-2018. McGraw-Hill Education.

In-text citation (Losco & Baker, 2018)

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios. 

(Barris, 2017) In-text Citation

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO. 

(Simon et al., 2002-2008) In-text Citation

Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter.


(Badlands National Park, 2018) In-text Citation

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from

(APA Style, n.d.) In-text Citation

Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. (n.d.). Student wellness center.

In-text is (Rowan-Cabarrus Community College, n.d.)

If the information changes frequently or regularly, a retrieval date is recommended.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from

In-text Citation is (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)

Miller, C. (n.d.). Does social media cause depression? Child Mind Institute.

In-text  Citation is (Miller, n.d.)

or  According to Miller (n.d.), 

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy life? Think age-positive. CNN.

In-text citation is

(Avramova, 2019)

Livio, M. (2020, May 19). When Galileo stood trial for defending science. A&E Television Networks.

In-text citation would be (Livio, 2020)

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunizations and vaccine safety.

(World Health Organization, 2018) is the in-text.

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2018) if you want to abbreviate in subsequent in-text citations. The whole name must be written out and the abbreviation indicated in the first in-text reference.

Boston Tea Party. (2019, December 12). A&E Television Networks.


("Boston Tea Party," 2019) In-text Citation



University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.

In-text Citation-  (University of Oxford, 2018)

APA Tutorial