A few things about APA formatting
Why use documentation style?
There are 3 main components of APA style
Whenever you have a reference at the end of your paper, you need at least one intext citation to go with it. Every intext citation should point to a reference at the end of your paper.
References and Intext Citations Go Together Like Peas and Carrots.
Your intext citation contains the first word(s) of your reference and the date so the reader can find it easily. For example:
You write this in your paper: For optimal decomposition, experts believe you should aim for a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 30:1 (Johnson, 2001).
This is in your Reference List:
Johnson, L. (2001, February). Compost Happens: The Secret to Making Quick Gardener's Gold Instead of a Slow, Stinking Mess Requires, Like Everything Else, Balance. Canadian Gardening, 12(1), 28-33.
Using sources in your APA-style paper consists of two steps.
Ideally, your reference (at the end of your paper) will consist of
Author. (date). Title. Source.
Livio, M. (2020, May 6). When Galileo stood trial for defending science. A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/news/galileo-copernicus-earth-sun-heresy-church
Controlled Burn. (n.d.). ScienceDaily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/controlled_burn.htm
Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. (n.d.). Student wellness center. https://www.rccc.edu/wellness/
There are two ways to cite your information in your paper.
If you include all the information about your source in the parenthesis at the end of the sentence, it is called a parenthetical in-text citation. Add page numbers for direct quotes.
If you include the author's name in the sentence, it is called a narrative in-text citation. The date goes in the parenthesis.
Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/
(Klymbkowsky, 2018) is the in-text citation
Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. Penguin.
(Gleick, 1987) is the in-text citation
Gale, P., & Lerner, N. (2000). The Bacon guide to peer tutoring. Allyn & Bacon.
(Gale & Lerner, 2000) is the in-text citation
UNCG. (2021). Information for potential UNCG students [Brochure].
In-text is (UNCG, 2021)
If an online brochure
UNCG. (n.d.) Visitor brochure [Brochure]. https://admissions.uncg.edu/visitor-brochure/
Include title and [Brochure] in the title. This brochure has no date. Do not use the webpage's copyright date.
In-text is (UNCG, n.d.)
(Harris, 2000) is the in-text citation
Dickinson, E. (1950). Because I could not stop for death. In F.O. Matthiessen (Ed.), The Oxford Book of American Verse (p. 439). Oxford.
In-text citation would be (Dickinson, 1950)
Johnson, L. (2020). Course syllabus English 112. Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. URL.
In-text Citation (Johnson, 2020)
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954). https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/
Parenthetical: (Brown v. Board of Education, 1954)
Narrative: Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
From page 359 of APA Manual 7th Edition.
US Supreme Court case, with a page number (through 2012 Supreme Court term)
U.S. is short for United States Reports.
Published in Volume 347 on page 483 in the year 1954.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi/books.9780890424496
(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)- In-text Citation
Paulson, J. A. (2016). Neuropsychological functioning and inflammation in past and current PTSD (Order No. 3706233) [Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University]. ProQuest Central. http://proxy154.nclive.org/login?url=https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/neuropsychological-functioning-inflammation-past/docview/1694579970/se-2?accountid=13601
Intext citation will be
Cuellar, N. G. (2016). Study abroad programs [Editorial]. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3), 209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659616638722
(Cuellar, 2016) In-text Citation
National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 action steps for helping someone in emotional pain [Infographic]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/321 Qstq
(National Institute of Mental Health, 2018) In-text Citation
Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/nationalzoo
(Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.) In-text Citation
Cambridge Educational. (2018). Animal trainer-career Q&A: Professional advice and insight. Ferguson's Career Guidance. https://fcg-infobase-com.proxy154.nclive.org/video/151048
Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.
(Forman, 1975) In-text Citation
Goya, F. (1800). The family of Charles IV. Museo National del Prado. https://www.netmuseum.org/ /hd_goya
Office of Women's Health. (2019, March 14). Breastfeeding. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding
In-text Citation is (Office of Women's Health, 2019).
*If author and publisher are the same, you do not need to repeat name after the title of webpage. This reference/citation shows Office of Women's Health as the group author and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the publisher.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm
Intext is (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018)
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018)
If you want to abbreviate you must connect the entire name of organization with the abbreviation on the first intext and then abbreviate after that.
First instance is: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDD], 2018). Next intext would be (CDC, 2018)
First instance is: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018). Next instance, (CDC, 2018).
Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/
(Zeitz MOCAA, 2018) In-text Citation
The New York Public Library [@nypl]. 9n.d.) The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://bitly.com/2FV8bu3
(The New York Public Library, n.d.) In-text Citation
Interviews or other personal communication (emails, letters, phone calls or messages that aren't able to be recovered or found) are NOT included in the reference list.
These personal communications are in-text cited as
(E. Robbins, personal communication, September 29, 2020)
Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.
(Bowie, 2016) In-text Citation
Childish Gambino. (2018). This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA.
(Childish Gambino, 2018) In-text Citation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/
(National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018) In-text Citation
Nemko, M. (2020, February 6). The three principles of good parenting. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/how-do-life/202002/the-three-principles-good-parenting
(Nemko, 2020) In-text Citation
McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg
(McCurry, 1985) In-text Citation
Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain
(Vendantam, 2015-present) In-text Citation
Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusement-park
(Glass, 2011) In-text Citation
Psychology Department, Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. (2021). Module 6 - adulthood [Lecture notes]. https://rccc.blackboard.com
(Psychology Department, 2021). In-text Citation
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)
(King James Bible, 1769/2017) In-text Citation
de Beauvoir, S., (1960, May 4). Simone de Beauvoir discusses the art of writing [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/simone-de-beauvoir-discusses-art-writing
(de Beauvoir, 1960) In-text Citation
Brewer, T. (2002). Test-taking anxiety among nursing & general college students. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 40(11), 22-29. https://proxy154.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/220140572?accountid=13601
(Brewer, 2002) In-text Citation
According to Brewer (2002),
McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1(, 1-51. https://doil.org/10.1037/rev0000126
(McCauley & Christiansen, 2019) In-text Citation
Pauwels, S., Symons, L., Eva-Lynn Vanautgaerden, Ghosh, M., Duca, R. C., Bekaert, B., Freson, K., Huybrechts, I., Langie, S., Koppen, G., Devlieger, R., & Godderis, L. (2019). The influence of the duration of breastfeeding on the infant’s metabolic epigenome. Nutrients, 11(6), 1408. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11061408
(Pauwels et al., 2019) for in-text citation when authors' names are not mentioned in sentence (Parenthetical citation)
Pauwels et al. (2019) when author is mentioned in the text (Narrative citation)
APA7 requires that you list up to 20 authors in the reference list
Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/why_you_should_make_useless_things
In-text Citation Format:
Losco, J. & Baker, R. (2018). Am gov 2017-2018. McGraw-Hill Education.
In-text citation (Losco & Baker, 2018)
Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.
(Barris, 2017) In-text Citation
Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.
(Simon et al., 2002-2008) In-text Citation
Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BadlandsNPS/status/968196500412133379
(Badlands National Park, 2018) In-text Citation
APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style
(APA Style, n.d.) In-text Citation
Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. (n.d.). Student wellness center. https://www.rccc.edu/wellness/.
In-text is (Rowan-Cabarrus Community College, n.d.)
If the information changes frequently or regularly, a retrieval date is recommended.
U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/
In-text Citation is (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)
Miller, C. (n.d.). Does social media cause depression? Child Mind Institute. https://childmind.org/article/is-social-media-use-causing-depression/
In-text Citation is (Miller, n.d.)
or According to Miller (n.d.),
Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html
In-text citation is
Livio, M. (2020, May 19). When Galileo stood trial for defending science. A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/news/galileo-copernicus-earth-sun-heresy-church
In-text citation would be (Livio, 2020)
World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunizations and vaccine safety. https://who.int.features.qu/84/en
(World Health Organization, 2018) is the in-text.
(World Health Organization [WHO], 2018) if you want to abbreviate in subsequent in-text citations. The whole name must be written out and the abbreviation indicated in the first in-text reference.
Boston Tea Party. (2019, December 12). A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/boston-tea-party
("Boston Tea Party," 2019) In-text Citation
University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8
In-text Citation- (University of Oxford, 2018)