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Industrial Engineering Technology: APA7 Citation Help

The Industrial Engineering Technology curriculum prepares graduates to perform as technical leaders in manufacturing and service organizations. The study and application of methods and techniques for developing & implementing integrated systems.

Citing Different Sources in APA7

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

(Klymbkowsky, 2018)

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. Penguin. 

(Gleick, 1987) is the intext

Gale, P., & Lerner, N. (2000). The Bacon guide to peer tutoring. Allyn & Bacon. 

(Gale & Lerner, 2000) is the intext

Harris, M. (2000). Talk to me: Engaging reluctant writers. In B. Raforth (Ed.), A tutor's guide: Helping writers (pp. 24-34). Heinemann. 

Dickinson, E. (1950). Because I could not stop for death. In F.O. Matthiessen (Ed.), The Oxford Book of American Verse (p. 439). Oxford.

Intext would be (Dickinson, 1950)

Johnson, L. (2020). Course syllabus English 112. Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. URL.

Intext (Johnson, 2020)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi/books.9780890424496

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Cuellar, N. G. (2016). Study abroad programs [Editorial]. Journal of Transcultural Nursing27(3), 209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659616638722

(Cuellar, 2016)

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/321 Qstq

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2018)

Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/nationalzoo

(Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute, n.d.)

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

(Forman, 1975)

Goya, F. (1800). The family of Charles IV. Museo National del Prado. https://www.netmuseum.org/ /hd_goya

Office of Women's Health. (2019, March 14). Breastfeeding. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding

 Intext is (Office of Women's Health, 2019). 

*If author and publisher are the same, you do not need to repeat name after the title of webpage. This reference/citation shows Office of Women's Health as the group author and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as the publisher. 


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm

Intext is (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018)

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018)

If you want to abbreviate you must connect the entire name of organization with the abbreviation on the first intext and then abbreviate after that.

First instance is: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDD], 2018). Next intext would be (CDC, 2018)

First instance is: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2018). Next instance, (CDC, 2018).

 

Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a a tour and workshop hosted by [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/

 

(Zeitz MOCAA, 2018)

The New York Public Library [@nypl]. 9n.d.) The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://bitly.com/2FV8bu3

(The New York Public Library, n.d.)

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia. 

(Bowie, 2016)

Childish Gambino. (2018). This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA.

(Childish Gambino, 2018)

Magryta, C. (2015, August 30). Top ten reasons to breastfeed your infant. The Salisbury Post. https://www.salisburypost.com/2015/08/30/8-30-15-lifestyle-dr-magryta-column/
 
For citing a source at the end of the sentence - (Magryta, 2015)
For citing a source when you name the source in the sentence  - Magryta (2015) says in his article that breastfeeding is beneficial because.....
 
 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/

(National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2018)

Nemko, M. (2020, February 6). The three principles of good parenting. Psychology Todayhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/how-do-life/202002/the-three-principles-good-parenting

 

(Nemko, 2020)

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

(McCurry, 1985) 

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

(Vendantam, 2015-present)

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/443/amusement-park

(Glass, 2011)

Lowe, W. (2020, January 3). Notes on drill team competition [Lecture notes]. https://rssed.org/lowe/drill

(Lowe, 2020). 

Herrin, S. (2020). Psychology 241, module 6 - adulthood [Lecture notes.]. https://rccc.blackboard.com

(Herrin, 2020).

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

(King James Bible, 1769/2017)

de Beauvoir, S., (1960, May 4). Simone de Beauvoir discusses the art of writing [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/simone-de-beauvoir-discusses-art-writing

(de Beauvoir, 1960)

Brewer, T. (2002). Test-taking anxiety among nursing & general college students. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 40(11), 22-29. https://proxy154.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/220140572?accountid=13601

 

(Brewer, 2002)

or

According to Brewer (2002), 

McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1(, 1-51. https://doil.org/10.1037/rev0000126

(McCauley & Christiansen, 2019)

Pauwels, S., Symons, L., Eva-Lynn Vanautgaerden, Ghosh, M., Duca, R. C., Bekaert, B., Freson, K., Huybrechts, I., Langie, S., Koppen, G., Devlieger, R., & Godderis, L. (2019). The influence of the duration of breastfeeding on the Infant’s metabolic epigenome. Nutrients, 11(6), 1408. doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11061408

(Pauwels et al., 2019) for intext citation when authors' names are not mentioned in sentence (Parenthetical citation)

Pauwels et al. (2019) when author is mentioned in text (Narrative citation)

 

APA7 requires that you list up to 20 authors in the reference list 

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://americarhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm
 
(King, 1963)

npatou. (2016, June 6). Malcolm X's legendary speech: "The bullet or the ballot" [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zLQLUpNGsc

 

 

(npatou, 2016)
 
Use the YouTube contributor as the author, not the speaker, per the APA Publication Manual, page 344.

Giertz, S. (2018, April). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/why_you_should_make_useless_things

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios. 

(Barris, 2017)

Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO. 

(Simon et al., 2002-2008)

Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BadlandsNPS/status/968196500412133379

 

(Badlands National Park, 2018)

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style

(APA Style, n.d.)

Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. (n.d.). Student wellness center. https://www.rccc.edu/wellness/.

Intext is (Rowan-Cabarrus Community College, n.d.)


If the information changes frequently or regularly, a retrieval date is recommended.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

Intext is (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)


Miller, C. (n.d.). Does social media cause depression? Child Mind Institute. https://childmind.org/article/is-social-media-use-causing-depression/

Intext is (Miller, n.d.)

According to Miller (n.d.), 

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/22/health/memory-forgetting-psychology.html

Livio, M. (2020, May 19). When Galileo stood trial for defending science. A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/news/galileo-copernicus-earth-sun-heresy-church

Intext citation would be (Livio, 2020)

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunizations and vaccine safety. https://who.int.features.qu/84/en

(World Health Organization, 2018) is the intext.

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2018) if you want to abbreviate in subsequent intext citations. The whole name must be written out and the abbreviation indicated in the first intext reference.

Boston Tea Party. (2019, December 12). A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/boston-tea-party

 

("Boston Tea Party," 2019)

 

 

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qm1xGfOZJc8

APA Tutorial

APA7 Sample Papers

A few things about APA formatting

  • APA7 allows for fonts other than Times New Roman 12 BUT our English and ACA departments have chosen to only allow Times New Roman 12. Other allowed fonts (for classes outside of English/ACA) are 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode. 11-point Georgia or 10-point Computer Modern are also allowed.
  • Double-space always
  • Rowan-Cabarrus generally doesn't use headings other than Level 1 (centered and bold) and Level 2 (left aligned and bold)
  • Abstracts are only necessary when the instructor asks for them.
  • There are two versions of APA on the web. Be careful
  • Within APA7, there are two versions (professional and student). Be careful.
  • Heading is page number, right aligned.

When Parts of a Citation are Missing

chart of how to handle citations when elements are missing

Intext Citing Specific Parts of a Source

APA uses the (Author, Date) system UNLESS you need to cite a specific part of a source (for example, direct quotes or statistics). Here are some examples:

(Robb, 2019, p. 35)

(Hunter, 2018, Chapter 4)

(Anderson, 2020, paras. 2-3)

(Shores, 2012, pp. 3-18)

(Ervin & Ervin, 2019, Table 5)

(Folck Institute for Archival Studies, 2017, 45:14) - This is a video or sound recording

(Deese, 2020, Slide 8)  - Powerpoint or Slideshare type source

(King James Bible, 1769/2017, 1 Cor. 13:1)

(Aristotle, ca 350 B.C.E./1994, Part IV)

(Shakespeare, 1623/1995, 1.3.36-37)

For more information, see page 264 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

Personal Interviews in APA

Reminder: Personal Interviews do NOT go into a reference list in APA style. 

Interviews should be cited like this for intext citations:

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001)
  • Examples:
  • Students must be able to complete four classes of calculus to take 300-level engineering classes at NCSU (J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2018).
  • According to J. Smith, an instructor at NCSU, students must complete four classes of calculus to take 300-level engineering classes (personal communication, August 15, 2018).

Peas and Carrots - APA Style

picture of peas and carrots

Whenever you have a reference at the end of your paper, you need at least one intext citation to go with it. Every intext citation should point to a reference at the end of your paper.

References and Intext Citations Go Together Like Peas and Carrots.

Your intext citation contains the first word(s) of your reference and the date so the reader can find it easily. For example:

You write this in your paper: For optimal decomposition, experts believe you should aim for a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 30:1 (Johnson, 2001).

This is in your Reference List:

Johnson, L. (2001, February). Compost Happens: The Secret to Making Quick Gardener's Gold Instead of a Slow, Stinking Mess Requires, Like Everything Else, Balance. Canadian Gardening, 12(1), 28-33.

 

Block Quotes (Long Direct Quotes)

Sometimes it may be necessary to include long direct quotes (of over 40 words) if you are unable to paraphrase or summarize. A long quote is treated differently as a block quotation with a .5 inch margin from the left but still double-spaced. Notice that there are no quotation marks around the block quotations even though these are direct quotes. 

Block quotation with parenthetical citation:

Researchers found when studying gray wolves that coloring around eyes may change over the lifespan:

Facial color patterns change with growth in many American canid species, although no studies have directly examined such developmental changes. For example, all newborn gray wolves observed in the present study had dark-colored bodies and C-type faces with dark-colored irises. (Ueda et al., 2014, p. 4)

Reference: Ueda, S., Kumagai, G., Otaki, Y., Yamaguchi, S., & Kohshima, S. (2014). A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (canis lupus). PLoS One, 9(6) doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217


Block quotation with narrative citation:

Manning and Kaler (2011) describe the difficulties of using survey methods when observing owls:

Survey methods with observers outside the vehicle were 3 times more likely to displace an owl than a single vehicle stop where observers remained inside the vehicle. Owls were displaced farther distances by all survey methods compared to control trials, but distances and time displaced did not differ among survey methods.

Reference: Manning, J. A., & Kaler, R. S. A. (2011). Effects of survey methods on burrowing owl behaviors. Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(3), 525-530. Retrieved from https://proxy154.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/925615280?accountid=13601


For more information, see page 272 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

APA7 Citation Guides and Templates

Rowan-Cabarrus uses the newest version of APA (APA7) which was released in October 2019. Make sure that you are using formatting and citation style for the 7th Edition of APA.

*APA7 allows for fonts other than Times New Roman 12 but Rowan-Cabarrus' English and ACA Department has chosen to continue to accept only Times New Roman 12. Other departments at Rowan-Cabarrus may choose to use other fonts including 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode. Other options are 11-point Georgia or 10-point Computer Modern. (APA Publication Manual, 2019, p. 44).

APA, Long Paraphrase and Narrative and Parenthetical Intext Citations

There are two ways to cite your information in your paper.

If you include all the information about your source in the parenthesis at the end of the sentence, it is called a parenthetical intext citation. Page numbers are added for direct quotes.

  • In conclusion, the research shows that dogs have innate predatory behavior traits which are enhanced by the dogs' desires to protect their human owners (Tucker & Maddey, 2020).    
  • The research found that "dogs are more willing to attack or defend territory that is considered to be their own" (Tucker & Maddey, 2020, p. 81). 

If you include the author's name in the sentence, it is called a narrative intext citation. The date would go in the parenthesis. 

  • Tucker and Maddey (2020) found that predatory behavior in dogs is due to many different factors.   

Often, long paraphrases continue for multiple sentences. Usually you'll intext cite the source in the first sentence. It is not necessary to cite every single sentence IF you've made it clear in the narrative that the information discussed is from the before-mentioned source. 

*Note that the bold words show where the information is coming from. Students should NOT bold any words.

Here's an example:


Tucker and Maddey (2020) found that predatory behavior in dogs is due to many different factors. One of the factors is the physical territory of the alleged threat. The research found that "dogs are more willing to attack or defend territory that is considered to be their own" (Tucker & Maddey, 2020, p. 81)Another factor they discovered is that dogs are more willing to prey on a threat if their human owners are nearby. In an experiment conducted over multiple days using cameras, Tucker and Maddey discovered that dogs were shown to be much more protective with predatory behavior when their owners were in the vicinity than when the owners were away. In conclusion, the research shows that dogs have innate predatory behavior traits which are enhanced by the dogs' desires to protect their human owners (Tucker & Maddey, 2020).   

puppy

Citing a Source Within a Source (Secondhand or Secondary Source)

Academic articles, books, and other sources often refer to previously published articles, books and other sources. You'll usually see the author of the previous source in the sentence or in the intext citation.

You will NOT include this source as if you read the study yourself.

For example, there is a paper written by Anderson that is referred to in an article written by Robb. You read the article by Robb; NOT the paper by Anderson. This is what you write:

According to Anderson's 2013 study (as cited in Robb, 2019), learning APA "can be difficult, especially when students are focusing on content area and not writing styles" (p. 33). In addition, some elements of APA seem subjective to students (Anderson, 2013 as cited in Robb, 2019).

In the reference list, you include the article you read; not the article you read about.

Robb, L. (2019). Librarianship in community colleges. Journal of Libraries, 110(2), 31-35. https://doil.something/something/000000. 

Direct Quotes

Guidelines for Direct Quotes

A Direct Quote uses the exact words of a source. 

Think of the quote as a rare and precious jewel. 

Quotes can be super-effective in getting your point across to the reader. Just be sure you’re not stringing a bunch of quotes together – you want your voice to be stronger than the voice of your sources. You always need to interpret, analyze, add to and explain more about the quote to your reader.  

Here are some guidelines to help you decide when to use quotes:

  • Wording that is so memorable, unforgettable or powerful, or expresses a point so perfectly, that you cannot change it without weakening the meaning.
  • An important passage is so dense or rich that it requires you to analyze it closely. This requires that the passage be quoted so the reader can follow your analysis.
  • A claim you are making is such that the doubting reader will want to hear exactly what the source said. This is mostly when you criticize or disagree with a source. You want your reader to know you aren't misrepresenting the source.
  • Your attempts to paraphrase or summarize are awkward or much longer than the source material.

Examples

You may choose to quote an entire passage from a source or just words or phrases. Make sure to use signal words (see below) to move between your ideas and the words of your source and avoid wordy or awkward introductions to a quote. Also, always cite your work. See examples below for ideas on how to use quotes.

Direct Quotes (APA format)

As Ali Akbar Hamemi remarked in 2005, "There is no doubt that America is a super-power in the world and we cannot ignore them" (Vick, 2017, p. 13). 

Direct Quotes (MLA format)

For Charles Dickens, the eighteenth century was both "the best of times" and "the worst of times" (35).

 

Sometimes it may be necessary to include long direct quotes (of over 40 words) if you are unable to paraphrase or summarize. A long quote is treated differently as a block quotation with a .5 inch margin from the left but still double-spaced. Notice that there are no quotation marks around the block quotations even though these are direct quotes. 

Block quotation with parenthetical citation:

Researchers found when studying gray wolves that coloring around eyes may change over the lifespan:

Facial color patterns change with growth in many American canid species, although no studies have directly examined such developmental changes. For example, all newborn gray wolves observed in the present study had dark-colored bodies and C-type faces with dark-colored irises. (Ueda et al., 2014, p. 4)

Ueda, S., Kumagai, G., Otaki, Y., Yamaguchi, S., & Kohshima, S. (2014). A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (canis lupus). PLoS One, 9(6) doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217


Block quotation with narrative citation:

Manning and Kaler (2011) describe the difficulties of using survey methods when observing owls:

Survey methods with observers outside the vehicle were 3 times more likely to displace an owl than a single vehicle stop where observers remained inside the vehicle. Owls were displaced farther distances by all survey methods compared to control trials, but distances and time displaced did not differ among survey methods.

Manning, J. A., & Kaler, R. S. A. (2011). Effects of survey methods on burrowing owl behaviors. Journal of Wildlife Management, 75(3), 525-530. Retrieved from https://proxy154.nclive.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/925615280?accountid=13601


For more information, see page 272 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

So, when using quotes:

  • Always have a good reason for using a direct quote. Otherwise, paraphrase or summarize.
  • Do not allow quotes to speak for themselves. Your research paper is about communicating YOUR IDEAS.  Your research simply helps prove or support those ideas.
  • Always make sure you provide an analysis of the quote.  Show your readers that you understand how the quote relates to your ideas by analyzing its significance.
  • Do not use quotes as padding. If quotes do not have adequate analysis, readers will feel that you don’t have a grasp on what that quote means, and they also might feel that you are using quotes as “filler” to take up space.
  • Use no more than 2 direct quotes per paragraph.
  • Carefully integrate quotations into your text so that they flow smoothly and clearly into the surrounding sentences. Use a signal phrase or signal verb, such as those in the following example:

As Thompson (2020) makes clear in his article, Youtube's algorithms "can’t distinguish between true and false data, except in the most crude way" (para. 5).  

 

Paraphrasing/Summarizing

Guidelines for Paraphrasing and Summarizing

Think of Paraphrases and Summaries as your foundations

Paraphrase and summarize long passages where the main point is important to the point you are making, but the details are not. You should use paraphrasing and summarizing much more often than direct quotes. A good balance would be 75% paraphrasing and summarizing and 25% direct quotes.

Paraphrase: You are paraphrasing when you take someone else’s words and rewrite them in your own words without altering the meaning or providing interpretation. Paraphrases are about the same length as the original. Always cite your paraphrase.
Summarize: You are summarizing when you condense the author's words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation using your own words -- basically, you’re presenting the original information in a nutshell. Always cite it.

Examples of Paraphrases

Introduce paraphrases clearly in your text, usually with a signal phrase that includes the author of the source. Here is original text and paraphrased text.

Original:

Volunteers feel more socially connected, they're less lonely, and suffer from depression less, studies show. Volunteering creates physical benefits too: Regular volunteers are less likely to develop high blood pressure and live longer, some studies show. (text is from "Dalai Lama: 5 Things to Keep in Mind for the Next Four Years" from CNN.com, written by Jen Christensen)

Paraphrased text in APA style:

Volunteering has psychological and physical benefits, according to studies. Along with being less depressed and lonely, volunteers also live longer and are less likely to have high blood pressure (Christensen, 2017).

Paraphrased text in MLA style:

Volunteering has psychological and physical benefits, according to studies. Along with being less depressed and lonely, volunteers also live longer and are less likely to have high blood pressure (Christensen).


Examples of Summaries

Summaries, too, need to be carefully integrated into your text. Make sure to signal the reader that you are summarizing and include the correct citation.

Here is an example of a summary in APA format:

In Christensen's article, she explores Dalai Lama's advice to people who want to find happiness in an uncertain world. His Holiness believes that people should focus on developing compassion, letting go of anger, self-reflecting, helping others, and being playful like children (Christensen, 2017). 

Here's the summary in MLA format:

In Christensen's article, she explores Dalai Lama's advice to people who want to find happiness in an uncertain world. His Holiness believes that people should focus on developing compassion, letting go of anger, self-reflecting, helping others, and being playful like children (Christensen). 

Whenever you include summaries, paraphrases, or quotations in your own writing, it is important that you identify the sources of the material; even unintentional failure to cite material is plagiarism. Be especially careful with paraphrases and summaries, where there are no quotation marks to remind you that the material is not your own.

Often, long paraphrases continue for multiple sentences. Usually you'll intext cite the source in the first sentence. It is not necessary to cite every single sentence IF you've made it clear in the narrative that the information discussed is from the before-mentioned source.

*Note that the bold words show where the information is coming from. Students should NOT bold the words.

Here's an example:


Tucker and Maddey (2020) found that predatory behavior in dogs is due to many different factors. One of the factors is the physical territory of the alleged threat. The research found that "dogs are more willing to attack or defend territory that is considered to be their own" (Tucker & Maddey, 2020, p. 81). Another factor they discovered is that dogs are more willing to prey on a threat if their human owners are nearby. In an experiment conducted over multiple days using cameras, Tucker and Maddey discovered that dogs were shown to be much more protective with predatory behavior when their owners were in the vicinity they when the owners were away. In conclusion, the research shows that dogs have innate predatory behavior traits which are enhanced by the dogs' desires to protect their human owners (Tucker & Maddey, 2020).   

If you're using information from a source more than once in a row (with no other sources referred to in between), you can use a simplified in-text citation. The first time you use information from the source, use a full in-text citation. The second time, you only need to give the page number.

Example:

Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells (Smith 15). It revolves around the idea that the cell is a "fundamental unit of life" (17). Many important scientists have contributed to the evolution of cell biology. Mattias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, for example, were scientists who formulated cell theory in 1838 (20). 

*Thank you to the Library at Columbia College for this example.

Paraphrasing will allow you to maintain your voice and style while showing your understanding of the source material.

Reasons why you would want to paraphrase from a source:

  • To change the organization of ideas for emphasis. You may have to change the organization of ideas in the passages you pull from your sources so that you can emphasize the points  most related to your paper.  Be sure to restate in your own words, but don’t change the meaning.
  • To simplify the material. You may have to simplify complex arguments, sentences, or vocabulary.
  • To clarify the material. You may have rewrite to clarify technical passages or put specialized information into language your audience will be better able to understand.

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because:

  • It is better than quoting information from a passage that doesn't have memorable or important words or phrases
  • It helps you control the temptation to quote too much
  • It allows the writer to put the idea of a source into their own voice (but always cite it to show it is someone else's idea).

Tips on Summarizing:

A summary is a condensed version of someone else’s writing. Like paraphrasing, summarizing involves using your own words and writing style to express another author’s ideas. Unlike the paraphrase, which presents important details, the summary presents only the most important ideas of the passage. For example, you could summarize a book in a sentence, or in several paragraphs, depending on your writing situation and audience. You may use the summary often for the following reasons:

  • To condense the material.You may have to condense or reduce the source material to pull out the  points that relate to your paper.
  • To omit extras from the material.You may have to leave out extra information from the source material so you can focus on the author’s main points.
  • To simplify the material. You may have to simply the most important complex arguments, sentences or vocabulary in the source material.

When you decide to summarize or paraphrase, avoid the following:

  • keeping the same structure of ideas and/or sentence structure
  • just changing some of the words
  • adding your ideas into the summary - be faithful to the meaning of the source material.
  • forgetting to cite your sources and use signal words.

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